(PHP 4 >= 4.2.0, PHP 5, PHP 7)

pg_escape_string Protège une chaîne de caractères pour une requête SQL


string pg_escape_string ([ resource $connection ], string $data )

pg_escape_string() protège une chaîne de caractères pour l'insérer dans la base de données. Elle retourne la chaîne ainsi protégée au format PostgreSQL. L'utilisation de cette fonction est recommandée, à la place de addslashes(). Si le type de la colonne est bytea, pg_escape_bytea() doit plutôt être utilisée. La fonction pg_escape_identifier() doit être utilisée pour échapper les identifiants (i.e. noms de tables, noms de champs).


Cette fonction requiert PostgreSQL 7.2 ou plus récent.

Liste de paramètres


Ressource de connexion à une base de données PostgreSQL. Lorsque connection n'est pas présent, la connexion par défaut est utilisée. La connexion par défaut est la dernière connexion créée par la fonction pg_connect() ou la fonction pg_pconnect().


Une chaîne de caractères contenant le texte à échapper.

Valeurs de retour

Une chaîne de caractères contenant les données échappées.


Version Description
5.2.0 Le paramètre connection a été ajouté.


Exemple #1 Exemple avec pg_escape_string()

// Connexion à la base de données
$dbconn pg_connect('dbname=foo');

// Lecture d'un fichier texte (contenant des apostrophes et des antislashs)
$data file_get_contents('letter.txt');

// Protection des données
$escaped pg_escape_string($data);

// Insertion dans la base de données
pg_query("INSERT INTO correspondence (name, data) VALUES ('Ma lettre', '{$escaped}')");

Voir aussi

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User Contributed Notes 9 notes

strata_ranger at hotmail dot com
6 years ago
Forthose curious, the exact escaping performed on the string may vary slightly depending on your database configuration.

For example, if your database's standard_conforming_strings variable is OFF, backslashes are treated as a special character and pg_escape_string() will ensure they are properly escaped.  If this variable is ON, backslashes will be treated as ordinary characters, and pg_escape_string() will leave them as-is.  In either case, the behavior matches the configuration of the database connection.
Nathan Bruer
9 years ago
If your database is a UTF-8 database, you will run into problems trying to add some data into your database...

for securty issues and/or compatability you may need to use the: utf_encode() ( function.

for example:
= pg_escape_string(utf8_encode($_POST['my_data']));
5 years ago
pg_escape_string() won't cast array arguments to the "Array" string like php usually does; it returns NULL instead. The following statements all evaluate to true:

= array('foo', 'bar');

"$a" == 'Array';
$a == 'Array';
$a . '' == 'Array';

10 years ago
Since php 5.1 the new function pg_query_params() was introduced. With this function you can use bind variables and don't have to escape strings. If you can use it, do so. If unsure why, check the changelog for Postgres 8.0.8.
ringerc at ringerc dot id dot au
3 years ago
You should prefer to use pg_query_params, i.e. use parameterized queries, rather than using pg_escape_string. Or use the newer PDO interface with its parameterized query support.

If you must substitute values directly, e.g. in DDL commands that don't support execution as parameterized queries, do so with pg_escape_literal:

Identifiers can't be used as query parameters. Always use pg_escape_identifier for these if they're substituted dynamically:

You should not need to change text encodings when using this function. Make sure your connection's client_encoding is set to the text encoding used by PHP, and the PostgreSQL client driver will take care of text encodings for you. No explicit utf-8 conversions should be necessary with a correctly set  client_encoding.
11 years ago
Creating a double-tick is just fine. It works the same as the backslash-tick syntax. From the PostgreSQL docs:

The fact that string constants are bound by single quotes presents an obvious semantic problem, however, in that if the sequence itself contains a single quote, the literal bounds of the constant are made ambiguous. To escape (make literal) a single quote within the string, you may type two adjacent single quotes. The parser will interpret the two adjacent single quotes within the string constant as a single, literal single quote. PostgreSQL will also allow single quotes to be embedded by using a C-style backslash.
Gautam Khanna
9 years ago
Security methods which you use depend on the specific purpose. For those who dont know, take a look at the following built-in PHP functions:

strip_tags()            to remove HTML characters
(also see htmlspecialchars)

escapeshellarg()      to escape shell commands etc

mysql_real_escape_string()     to escape mySQL commands.


web dot expert dot panel at gmail dot com
johniskew2 at yahoo dot com
10 years ago
For those who escape their single quotes with a backslash (ie \') instead of two single quotes in a row (ie '') there has recently been a SERIOUS sql injection vulnerability that can be employed taking advantage of your chosen escaping method.  More info here:
Even after the postgre update, you may still be limited to what you can do with your queries if you still insist on backslash escaping. It's a lesson to always use the PHP functions to do proper escaping instead of adhoc addslashes or magic quotes escaping.
strata_ranger at hotmail dot com
5 years ago
This may seem obvious, but remember that pg_escape_string escapes values for use as string literals in an SQL query -- if you need to escape arbitrary strings for use as SQL identifiers (column names, etc.), there doesn't seem to be a PHP function for that so you'll have to do that escaping yourself.  (PostgreSQL has an in-database function, quote_ident(), that does this.)

This can be an issue if your database contains mixed-case (or otherwise unusual) column names and you have a class interface managing your database/query interactions (for connecting to different types of databases).  If you don't double-quote your column names then postgreSQL will match them case-insensitively, but will label the results in all-lowercase (which differs from MySQL).

For example:

// Plain column identifier
$res = pg_query("Select columnName from table");
$row = pg_fetch_assoc($res);

var_dump($row['columnName']); // Doesn't work (throws E_NOTICE)
var_dump($row['columnname']); // Works

// Escaped column identifier
$res = pg_query("Select \"columnName\" from table");
$row = pg_fetch_assoc($res);

var_dump($row['columnName']); // Works
var_dump($row['columnname']); // Doesn't
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